Citations are Getting More Evenly Distributed

I claimed yesterday that citations within journals are getting more egalitarian. To verify this, I pulled the citation data for two prominent years: The Journal of Philosophy, 1976 and Philosophical Studies, 2009.

I couldn’t find an easy way to get just the citations in Arts & Humanities, so this table includes all the citations in Web of Science. (I checked a few articles, and the non-humanities citations average around 20% of the total citations, though the articles in political philosophy typically run a fair bit higher than that.)

The citations here are just through 2015; that makes a big difference to the most cited articles from 1976, and to many articles from 2009.

Both years I’m looking at have a number of discussion notes includes. The Journal of Philosophy used to publish papers presented at the APA, and the commentaries on them. So I’ve included a column showing how many pages are in each article, to give you a sense of when an article is really just a discussion note.

First, the citations of articles in The Journal of Philosophy, 1976. I’ve deleted the book reviews, and the discussion notes that were 3 pages or less.

Title Author Cites Pages
Discrimination And Perceptual Knowledge Goldman, AI 370 21
Schizophrenia Of Modern Ethical Theories Stocker, M 172 14
Motive Utilitarianism Adams, RM 55 15
Explanation, Conjunction, And Unification Kitcher, P 52 6
Putnam’s Theory On Reference Of Substance Terms Zemach, EM 40 12
Two Types Of Foundationalism Alston, WP 36 21
Grades Of Discriminability Quine, WV 33 4
Humes Cognitive Theory Of Pride Davidson, D 32 14
Worlds Away Quine, WV 30 5
Truth And Assertibility Brandom, R 28 13
Knowledge, Causality, And Defeasibility Klein, PD 26 21
What Is A Logical Constant Peacocke, C 22 20
Social Choice And Derivation Of Rawls’s Difference Principle Strasnick, S 21 15
Necessity Of Origin Mcginn, C 21 9
Counterfactuals With Disjunctive Antecedents Loewer, B 17 7
Direction Of Causation And Direction Of Conditionship Sanford, DH 16 15
Save Phenomena Van Fraassen, BC 15 10
History And Hermeneutics Ricoeur, P 13 13
Mentality And Neutrality Rosenthal, DM 12 30
Causation – Matter Of Life And Death Earman, J 11 21
Psychology Of Benevolence And Its Implications For Philosophy Brandt, RB 7 25
Comments On Nozicks Entitlement Theory Davis, L 7 9
Theory Of Language Harris, Z 6 24
Identity Statements And Microreductions Enc, B 6 22
Mechanism, Functionalism, And Identity Theory Nelson, RJ 6 21
Entitlement Theory Of Distributive Justice Goldman, AH 6 13
Ontological Reduction Gottlieb, D 5 20
Method For Ontology, With Applications To Numbers And Events Gottlieb, D 3 15
Inferential Justification And Empiricism Fumerton, RA 3 13
Discernibility Of Identicals Moravcsik, JME 3 12
Labor Theory Of Property Acquisition Becker, LC 3 12
Rawls’s Original Position And Difference Principle Goldman, AH 3 5
Space And Objects Oneill, O 2 17
Meaning And Perception Pastin, M 2 15
Strasnicks Derivation Of Rawlss Difference Principle Wolff, RP 2 10
Projectability Unscathed Ullian, J; Goodman, N 2 5
Carrots, Noses, Snow, Rose, Roses Gass, WH 1 15
Strawson On Predication Moravcsik, JME 0 20
Practical Reason And Concept Of A Human Being Scott, S 0 14
Charles Taylor’s Hegel Soll, I 0 14
Identity Of Indiscernibles Nagel, G 0 6

Next, the citations of articles in Philosophical Studies, 2009. I’ve deleted the articles that were 3 pages or less, and the introductions to the book symposia. I’ve left the rest of the symposia in, though many of these have very few citations. (The symposia contributions mostly are around 10 pages or so.)

Title Author Cites Pages
Knowledge and credit Lackey, Jennifer 35 16
Spacetime the one substance Schaffer, Jonathan 31 18
Means-end coherence, stringency, and subjective reasons Schroeder, Mark 30 26
Absence of evidence and evidence of absence Sober, Elliott 28 28
Shared intention and personal intentions Gilbert, Margaret 28 21
Models and fictions in science Godfrey-Smith, Peter 27 16
Knowledge and success from ability Greco, John 25 10
Oughts and ends Finlay, Stephen 25 26
Modest sociality and the distinctiveness of intention Bratman, Michael E. 20 17
Weighing the aim of belief Steglich-Petersen, Asbjorn 20 11
Thought-experiment intuitions and truth in fiction Ichikawa, Jonathan; Jarvis, Benjamin 19 26
A better best system account of lawhood Cohen, Jonathan; Callender, Craig 19 34
A Virtue Epistemology Pritchard, Duncan 17 10
In defense of adaptive preferences Bruckner, Donald W. 17 18
Models, measurement and computer simulation Morrison, Margaret 16 25
Epistemology without metaphysics Field, Hartry 16 42
The possibility of pragmatic reasons for belief Reisner, Andrew 15 16
Determination, realization and mental causation Wilson, Jessica 15 21
Motivated contextualism Henderson, David 15 13
Individuals Dasgupta, Shamik 14 33
The folk on knowing how Bengson, John; Moffett, Marc A.; Wright, Jennifer C. 14 15
The neural evidence for simulation is weaker than I think you think it is Saxe, Rebecca 13 10
Empathy, social psychology, and global helping traits Miller, Christian B. 13 29
Self-representationalism and phenomenology Kriegel, Uriah 13 25
Intuitions are inclinations to believe Earlenbaugh, Joshua; Molyneux, Bernard 12 21
The logic, intentionality, and phenomenology of emotion Montague, Michelle 11 22
The open future Barnes, Elizabeth; Cameron, Ross 11 19
Revisionism about free will Vargas, Manuel 11 18
The perils of Perrin, in the hands of philosophers van Fraassen, Bas C. 11 20
Inter-species variation in colour perception Allen, Keith 11 24
Assertion, Moore, and Bayes Douven, Igor 11 15
What good is a diachronic will? Ferrero, Luca 10 28
Knowing full well Sosa, Ernest 9 11
Moral judgment purposivism Bedke, M. S. 9 21
Replies Williamson, Timothy 9 12
A new argument for skepticism Reed, Baron 9 14
Imagination and other scripts Funkhouser, Eric; Spaulding, Shannon 9 24
Dubious assertions Sosa, David 9 4
Evidence-based policy Cartwright, Nancy 8 10
Indeterminacy and variability in meta-ethics Gill, Michael B. 8 20
Reduction and emergence: a critique of Kim Needham, Paul 8 24
The irrationality of recalcitrant emotions Brady, Michael S. 8 18
Experience and self-consciousness Schear, Joseph K. 8 11
Semantic intuitions, conceptual analysis, and cross-cultural variation Jackman, Henry 7 19
Compatibilism & desert McKenna, Michael 7 11
Drawing the boundary between low-level and high-level mindreading de Vignemont, Frederique 7 10
A consistent way with paradox Goldstein, Laurence 7 13
Utterance at a distance Stevens, Graham 7 9
Concept Cartesianism, Concept Pragmatism, and Frege Cases Rives, Bradley 6 28
Triviality arguments against functionalism Godfrey-Smith, Peter 6 23
Hard incompatibilism and its rivals Pereboom, Derk 6 13
Imaginability, morality, and fictional truth Todd, Cain Samuel 5 25
Is computer simulation changing the face of experimentation? Giere, Ronald N. 5 4
Contextualism, relativism and ordinary speakers’ judgments Montminy, Martin 5 16
Structural equations and causation Hitchcock, Christopher 5 11
Moral responsibility and agents’ histories Mele, Alfred 5 21
Summation relations and portions of stuff Donnelly, Maureen; Bittner, Thomas 5 19
Luminous enough for a cognitive home Fumerton, Richard 5 10
Virtuous intuitions Boghossian, Paul 4 9
Randomized controlled trials and the flow of information Roush, Sherrilyn 4 9
Replies Goldman, Alvin I. 4 15
Neither here nor there Debes, Remy 4 27
Knowing the intuition and knowing the counterfactual Ichikawa, Jonathan 4 9
Against Cognitivism about Practical Rationality Brunero, John 4 15
Advice for fallibilists Fantl, Jeremy; McGrath, Matthew 4 12
Towards a semantics for biscuit conditionals Predelli, Stefano 4 13
Reference, perception, and attention Raftopoulos, Athanasios 4 22
On doing better, experimental-style Weinberg, Jonathan M. 4 10
Simulation and the first-person Carruthers, Peter 4 9
The modal status of materialism Levine, Joseph; Trogdon, Kelly 4 12
Moral advice and moral theory Leibowitz, Uri D. 4 11
Promises beyond assurance Southwood, Nicholas; Friedrich, Daniel 4 20
Intentional psychologism Pitt, David 4 22
Restricting factiveness Stjernberg, Fredrik 4 20
Replies to commentators Sosa, Ernest 3 11
I won’t do it Louise, Jennie 3 22
Truth-conditions, truth-bearers and the new B-theory of time Torre, Stephan 3 20
Defending a possibilist insight in consequentialist thought Vessel, Jean-Paul 3 13
Non-identity, self-defeat, and attitudes to future children Kahane, Guy 3 22
Liberalism and the general justifiability of punishment Hanna, Nathan 3 25
Virtue theory, ideal observers, and the supererogatory Kawall, Jason 3 18
The Loop Case and Kamm’s Doctrine of Triple Effect Liao, S. Matthew 3 9
Objective evidence and absence Strevens, Michael 3 10
The myth of the categorical counterfactual Barnett, David 3 16
Naturalism, fallibilism, and the a priori Warenski, Lisa 3 24
Difficult times for Humean identity? Garrett, Don 3 9
Normativity without artifice Bauer, Mark 3 21
Bennett and proxy actualism Nelson, Michael; Zalta, Edward N. 3 16
Reliabilism in philosophy Goldberg, Sanford C. 3 13
Sosa in perspective Kornblith, Hilary 3 10
Parity, incomparability and rationally justified choice Boot, Martijn 2 18
Reupholstering a discipline Martin, M. G. F. 2 9
Contextualism, safety and epistemic relevance Blome-Tillmann, Michael 2 12
Simulation a la Goldman Perner, Josef; Brandl, Johannes L. 2 12
Bootstrapping and knowledge of reliability Brueckner, Anthony; Buford, Christopher T. 2 6
Why is a truth-predicate like a pronoun? Bave, Arvid 2 14
Replies Sosa, Ernest 2 14
Physicalism and sparse ontology Trogdon, Kelly 2 19
Analyzing a priori knowledge Casullo, Albert 2 14
Fodor’s riddle of abduction Rellihan, Matthew J. 2 26
Knowledge as aptness Cohen, Stewart 2 5
Libertarianism Kane, Robert 2 10
Defense Draper, Kai 2 20
Aggregation, Partiality, and the Strong Beneficence Principle Dorsey, Dale 1 19
Comments Dreyfus, Hubert L. 1 8
Indirect perceptual realism and demonstratives Brown, Derek Henry 1 18
A problem for Russellian theories of belief Ostertag, Gary 1 19
Replies Baxter, Donald L. M. 1 11
Science fictions Fine, Arthur 1 9
Plural signification and the Liar paradox Read, Stephen 1 13
Against structured referring expressions Sullivan, Arthur 1 26
The fate of a warrior culture Sherman, Nancy 1 10
Is knowledge a natural kind? Pernu, Tuomas K. 1 16
The fixity of reasons Gallois, Andre Norman 1 16
The event of color Pasnau, Robert 1 17
Ineliminable tension Lenard, Patti Tamara; Moore, Margaret R. 0 7
What is wrong with the indeterminacy of language-attribution? Khatchirian, Arpy 0 25
The a priori defended Thurow, Joshua C. 0 17
The Chrysippus intuition and contextual theories of truth Newhard, Jay 0 8
Two-dimensionalism and the epistemology of recognition Valaris, Markos 0 19
Trumping the causal influence account of causation Stone, Jim 0 8
Who they are and what de se Giberman, Daniel 0 15
Evidentialism and the problem of stored beliefs Piazza, Tommaso 0 14
Response Lear, Jonathan 0 13
Perilous thoughts Longino, Helen 0 8
Ultimacy and alternative possibilities Fischer, John Martin 0 6
Hume and Baxter on identity over time Falkenstein, Lorne 0 9
Noncomparabilism in epistemology Wunderlich, Mark Emerson 0 19
The inessential quasi-indexical Alward, Peter 0 21
A Virtue Epistemology, vol 1 Conee, Earl 0 10
Justification and awareness Markie, Peter J. 0 17
Hume and Frege on identity Perry, John 0 11
Fictions within fictions Hayaki, Reina 0 20
Reliability as a virtue Audi, Robert 0 12
The ethics of morphing Hare, Caspar 0 20
Sosa on scepticism Brown, Jessica 0 9

Now on the one hand there are a lot of articles here that didn’t get a lot of citations by 2015. On the other hand, there are 48 articles that had at least 7 citations (so at least 1/year), by 2015. That’s a huge number, and that’s why Philosophical Studies is getting so many citations – it publishes so many things that get at least some uptake. And that, I think, is very impressive.

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